lipid soluble drugs in elderly

Tizanidine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and .

Jun 01, 2019· Tizanidine is a lipid-soluble drug, which is only slightly soluble in water and methanol. Therefore, dialysis is not likely to be an efficient method of removing drug from the body. In general, symptoms resolve within one to three days following discontinuation of Tizanidine and administration of appropriate therapy.

Geriatrics – Polypharmacy in the Elderly: By Balakrishnan .

Nov 07, 2016· Approximately 1/3 of elderly patients take more than 5 drugs, which correlates with the fact that more than 80% of elderly patients have more than 3 chronic conditions.

Drugs and the Elderly | The Hospitalist

A lipid-soluble drug, diazepam and its metabolites will be stored in an increasingly large body compartment. This will temporarily decrease the serum level of the drug, but will prolong the half-life from an average of 20 hours to greater than 50 hours.

Naproxen - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Naproxen has a molecular weight of 230.26 and a molecular formula of C 14H 14O 3. Naproxen is an odorless, white to off-white crystalline substance. It is lipid-soluble, practically insoluble in water at low pH and freely soluble in water at high pH.

Age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and .

On the other hand, nonpolar compounds tend to be lipid-soluble and so their V increases with age. The main effect of the increased V is a prolongation of half-life. Increased V and t 1/2 have been observed for drugs such as diazepam, thiopentone, lignocaine, and chlormethiazole [61–66]. The reduction in V for water-soluble drugs tends to be

Drug Excretion - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

A major characteristic of compounds excreted in urine is that they are polarized (i.e., charged) and water-soluble. Drugs that are lipid soluble are not readily removed by the kidneys and require hepatic metabolism (e.g., phase I and phase II biotransformation reactions) to increase their water solubility for possible urinary excretion.

Lipid-Soluble and Water-Soluble ß-Blockers: Comparison of .

• The sedative effects of a relatively lipid-soluble and a water-soluble β-blocker were compared in 20 male hypertensives, 30 to 60 years old. In a blinded, randomized, crossover study, critical flash fusion frequency and computerized Stroop Word Test were used to assess psychomotor function parameters during a drug-free control day and then following 14 days of either metoprolol, 150 mg .

Drugs and the Elderly | The Hospitalist

Feb 25, 1998· It is therefore not surprising that elderly people are particularly sensitive to drugs which may cause, respectively, postural hypotension (e.g. antihypertensive or antiparkinsonian medication), ataxia (e.g. benzodiazepines), volume depletion and electrolyte imbalance (e.g. diuretics) or hypothermia (e.g. phenothiazines).

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the elderly

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the elderly P Midlöv* drug–drug interactions and adverse drug effects compared with younger patients makes use of pharmacologic agents in the elderly much more difficult.­ Usually,­elderly­is­defined­by­a­ chronological age of 65 years or older.­One­should­be­aware­of­the­

Pharmacokinetics in older patients | Rosemont Pharma

Drug absorption is theoretically reduced in the older patient due to loss of mucosal intestinal surface, decrease in gastrointestinal blood flow and reduced gastric acidity. Drug distribution. Once a drug is absorbed it is carried around the body in the blood stream. Distribution is the term used to describe the movement of the drug into body tissues.

Perioperative Drug Therapy in Elderly Patients .

Fig. 2. Compared with young patients, elderly patients tend to have more adipose tissue, decreased body water, and less muscle mass. These changes will cause water-soluble drugs to have decreased volume of distribution (Vd water), whereas lipid-soluble drugs may have increased volume of distribution (Vd lipid). Clearance for most drugs is decreased in the elderly. Drug sensitivity (especially to …

Distribution changes with age - GlobalRPH

Conversely, increases in total body fat will result in a larger volume of distribution for lipid soluble drugs. These factors along with age-related changes in drug clearance, can have a profound impact on the eventual steady-state concentrations. Total protein values are usually stable because of the increase in alpha-1 glycoprotein.

Tizanidine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and .

Jun 01, 2019· Tizanidine is a lipid-soluble drug, which is only slightly soluble in water and methanol. Therefore, dialysis is not likely to be an efficient method of removing drug from the body. In general, symptoms resolve within one to three days following discontinuation of Tizanidine and administration of appropriate therapy.

Factors which determine the lipid solubility of drugs .

Of these incompletely ionised substances, the non-ionised forms will be lipid soluble, whereas the ionised forms will not. The proportion of the ionised to non-ionised molecules is determined by the pH of the solution and the pKa of the drug (pKa being the pH at which concentration of …

Solved: Why Do Lipid-soluble Drugs Tend To Have A Longer H .

A) because the elderly have less body fluid in which to dissolve lipid-soluble drugs. B) Because the elderly tend to take numerous drugs each day. C) Because the elderly require higher doses of drugs than younger adults. D) Because the percentage of body fat in the elderly is higher. E) Because younger adults have a greater percentage of body fat

Naproxen - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Naproxen has a molecular weight of 230.26 and a molecular formula of C 14 H 14 O 3.. Naproxen is an odorless, white to off-white crystalline substance. It is lipid-soluble, practically insoluble in water at low pH and freely soluble in water at high pH.

Pharmacology Test 2 Drug-List: Alphabetical

Given IV for CHF emergencies, but primarily used only experimentally. The last lipid soluble and fastest acting of the digitalis drugs. Oxazepam: CNS; Depressant Benzodiazepine: Short acting; not metabolized by the P450 system. Oxprenolol: CV; Anti-HTN beta-Blocker (non-selective) Has partial beta-agonist activity. Oxycodone: CNS; Opioid Analgesic: Oxymorphone

Lipid-Soluble and Water-Soluble ß-Blockers: Comparison of .

• The sedative effects of a relatively lipid-soluble and a water-soluble β-blocker were compared in 20 male hypertensives, 30 to 60 years old. In a blinded, randomized, crossover study, critical flash fusion frequency and computerized Stroop Word Test were used to assess psychomotor function parameters during a drug-free control day and then following 14 days of either metoprolol, 150 mg .

ToxTutor - Factors Influencing Toxicity

Generally, detoxification converts lipid-soluble compounds to polar compounds. In bioactivation, a xenobiotic may be converted to more reactive or toxic forms. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) is an example of an enzyme pathway used to metabolize drugs. In the elderly, CYP450 metabolism of drugs such as phenytoin and carbamazepine may be decreased.

Pharmacokinetic changes in aging - ScienceDirect

Although these changes might be expected to lead to decreased absorption of basic and poorly lipid-soluble drugs in the elderly, few drugs have been examined carefully and most have been observed to be absorbed similarly in young adults and elderly patients. Two interesting exceptions that relate to gastric acidity are clorazepate and L-dopa.

Antiepileptic Drugs Act Differently in the Aged | Clinical .

Jan 01, 2005· When elderly patients are absorbing drugs by nasogastric tube, there is decreased motility and adsorption of lipid-soluble drugs. One way to solve this is to use a drug in suspension or solution, particularly levetiracetam.

Perioperative Drug Therapy in Elderly Patients .

Lipid-soluble drugs (which include most anesthetic drugs and anesthetic adjuvants) will be reabsorbed in the tubules, whereas water-soluble metabolites will be excreted. Active metabolites ( e.g., morphine-6-glucuronide), as well as water-soluble drugs (including some muscle relaxants), can depend on the kidneys for elimination.

Drug Distribution - Drugs - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

Drugs penetrate different tissues at different speeds, depending on the drug's ability to cross membranes. For example, the antibiotic rifampin, a highly fat-soluble drug, rapidly enters the brain, but the antibiotic penicillin, a water-soluble drug, does not.In general, fat-soluble drugs can cross cell membranes more quickly than water-soluble drugs can.

Pharmacokinetic changes in aging - ScienceDirect

Other drugs have been shown to have altered volumes of distribution in the elderly that are consistent with their relative lipid:water solubility ratios [23]. In a few studies, different investigators have reported conflicting results-as in the case of lorazepam, which is a more water-soluble benzodiazepine than …

Drug Distribution - Drugs - MSD Manual Consumer Version

Drugs that dissolve in water (water-soluble drugs), such as the antihypertensive drug atenolol, tend to stay within the blood and the fluid that surrounds cells (interstitial space). Drugs that dissolve in fat (fat-soluble drugs), such as the antianxiety drug clorazepate, tend to concentrate in fatty tissues. Other drugs concentrate mainly in only one small part of the body (for example, iodine concentrates mainly in the …

Drug Distribution - Drugs - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

Drugs that dissolve in water (water-soluble drugs), such as the antihypertensive drug atenolol, tend to stay within the blood and the fluid that surrounds cells (interstitial space). Drugs that dissolve in fat (fat-soluble drugs), such as the antianxiety drug clorazepate, tend to concentrate in fatty tissues. Other drugs concentrate mainly in only one small part of the body (for example, iodine concentrates mainly in the …

water and lipid soluble statins - General Practice Notebook

water and lipid soluble statins. . Statins can be classified into water soluble and lipid soluble (lipophilic) statins. Water soluble statins. . pravastatin and rosuvastatin have therefore been not shown to participate in any clinically relevant drug-drug interactions with CYP450 agents Insulin resistance: .

Elimination of drugs from the body - forcon

Drugs are eliminated from the body either unchanged as the parent drug or as metabolites (a changed form of the drug). Organs that excrete drugs eliminate polar compounds (water soluble) more readily than components with high lipid (fat) solubility.

Therapeutic Window FACTORS MODIFYING DRUG DOSE …

¾Concentration of drugs differ in milk. Lipid soluble drugs are in higher concentration ¾Generally most drugs are in too low a concentration to be harmful to infant - However consider: ¾Volume of milk consumed ¾Age of the infant ¾Liposolubility of the drug ¾Some drugs are contraindicated because of known risk: nicotine,

Lipid-Soluble and Water-Soluble ß-Blockers: Comparison of .

Jan 01, 1987· • The sedative effects of a relatively lipid-soluble and a water-soluble β-blocker were compared in 20 male hypertensives, 30 to 60 years old. In a blinded, randomized, crossover study, critical flash fusion frequency and computerized Stroop Word Test were used to assess psychomotor function parameters during a drug-free control day and then following 14 days of either metoprolol, 150 mg .